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Read about gout, a type of arthritis where crystals form inside and around joints. Find out about the symptoms, causes and treatments.
Gout causes sudden severe joint pain. See a GP for treatment to help during an attack and to stop further attacks.
See a GP if you have:
- sudden severe pain in any joint – usually the big toe, or fingers, wrists, elbows or knees
- red, hot, swollen skin over the affected joint
These are symptoms of gout.
Gout does not cause lasting damage to joints if you get treatment straight away.
Ask for an urgent appointment or call 111 if:
- the pain is getting much worse and you have a very high temperature (you feel hot and shivery)
This could mean you have an infection inside the joint.
What happens at your appointment
Gout can be hard to diagnose as symptoms are similar to other conditions.
A GP may ask about your diet and if you drink beer or spirits.
You might be sent for a blood test, ultrasound or X-ray.
Sometimes a thin needle is used to take a sample of fluid from the affected joint to test.
The tests will find out how much of a chemical called uric acid there is in your body.
Having too much can lead to crystals forming around your joints and causing pain.
Attacks of gout are usually treated with anti-inflammatory medicine like ibuprofen.
If the gout does not improve after 3 to 4 days, you might be given steroids as tablets or an injection.
- take any medicine you have been prescribed as soon as possible – it should start to work within 3 days
- rest and raise the limb
- keep the joint cool – apply an ice pack, or a bag of frozen peas wrapped in a towel, for up to 20 minutes at a time
- drink lots of water (unless advised not to by a GP)
- try to keep bedclothes off the affected joint at night
- do not knock the joint or put pressure on it
Treatment to prevent gout coming back
Gout can come back every few months or years. It can come back more often if not treated.
If you have frequent attacks or you have high levels of uric acid in your blood, you may need uric acid-lowering medicine.
It's important to take uric acid-lowering medicine regularly, even when you no longer have symptoms.
Making lifestyle changes might mean you can stop or reduce further attacks.
- get to a healthy weight, but avoid crash diets – you could try the NHS weight loss plan
- aim for a healthy, balanced diet, with plenty of vegetables and some low-fat dairy foods
- have at least 2 alcohol-free days a week
- drink plenty of fluids to avoid getting dehydrated
- exercise regularly – but avoid intense exercise or putting lots of pressure on joints
- stop smoking
- ask a GP about vitamin C supplements
- do not eat a lot of red meat, kidneys, liver or seafood
- do not have lots of sugary drinks and snacks
- do not have lots of fatty foods
- do not drink more than 14 units of alcohol a week (and do not have it all on 1 or 2 days)
The UK Gout Society has more detailed advice on diet for people living with gout (PDF, 879kb).
Things that can trigger a gout attack
You might get an attack if you're very stressed or have had an illness.
If you injure or bruise a joint and it's more painful than you'd expect after a minor bump, it could be an attack coming on.
Get treatment straight away if you feel an attack coming on.
Who gets gout
Gout sometimes runs in families.
It's more common in men, especially as they get older.
Other people at risk include:
- women after the menopause
- people who take medicines such as diuretics (water tablets) for blood pressure, or have high levels of cholesterol
- people who are overweight and who drink alcohol, especially beer
Complications of gout
It's rare to get lots of attacks, but if you do, you can develop permanent damage to the joint (chronic gout).
Chronic gout can also cause tiny white lumps (tophi) to appear under your skin, especially on your ears, fingers or elbows.
This is where urate crystals form under the skin. They can be painful.
You can get kidney stones if your uric acid levels are very high, so you'll need treatment to reduce the levels.
Social care and support guide
- need help with day-to-day living because of illness or disability
- care for someone regularly because they're ill, elderly or disabled (including family members)
Our guide to care and support explains your options and where you can get support.